Many stories The myth survives about how HIV is transmitted. It is important to get the facts about how HIV is transmitted from one person to another. consider how hiv can be avoided and also how to overcome it so as not to get infected.
How Is HIV Transmitted?
You can get or transmit HIV only through specific activities. Most commonly, people get or transmit HIV through sexual behaviors and needle or syringe use.
Only certain body fluids—blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk—from a person who has HIV can transmit HIV. These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream (from a needle or syringe) for transmission to occur. Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, vagina, penis, and mouth.
In the United States, HIV is spread mainly by
-Having anal or vaginal sex with someone who has HIV without using a condom or taking medicines to prevent or treat HIV.
– For the HIV-negative partner, receptive anal sex (bottoming) is the highest-risk sexual behavior, but you can also get HIV from insertive anal sex (topping).
– Either partner can get HIV through vaginal sex, though it is less risky for getting HIV than receptive anal sex.
-Sharing needles or syringes, rinse water, or other equipment (works) used to prepare drugs for injection with someone who has HIV. HIV can live in a used needle up to 42 days depending on temperature and other factors.
Less commonly, HIV may be spread
-From mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. Although the risk can be high if a mother is living with HIV and not taking medicine, recommendations to test all pregnant women for HIV and start HIV treatment immediately have lowered the number of babies who are born with HIV.
-By being stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other sharp object. This is a risk mainly for health care workers.
In extremely rare cases, HIV has been transmitted by
-Oral sex—putting the mouth on the penis (fellatio), vagina (cunnilingus), or anus (rimming). In general, there’s little to no risk of getting HIV from oral sex. But transmission of HIV, though extremely rare, is theoretically possible if an HIV-positive man ejaculates in his partner’s mouth during oral sex. To learn more about how to lower your risk, see CDC’s Oral Sex and HIV Risk.
-Receiving blood transfusions, blood products, or organ/tissue transplants that are contaminated with HIV. This was more common in the early years of HIV, but now the risk is extremely small because of rigorous testing of the US blood supply and donated organs and tissues.
-Eating food that has been pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth mixes with food while chewing. The only known cases are among infants.
-Being bitten by a person with HIV. Each of the very small number of documented cases has involved severe trauma with extensive tissue damage and the presence of blood. There is no risk of transmission if the skin is not broken.
-Contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and HIV-infected blood or blood-contaminated body fluids.
-Deep, open-mouth kissing if both partners have sores or bleeding gums and blood from the HIV-positive partner gets into the bloodstream of the HIV-negative partner. HIV is not spread through saliva.
How can body fluids that can contain HIV include? here’s how:
– Blood (including menstrual blood)
– Semen and possibly pre-seminal fluid (“pre-cum”)
– Vaginal secretions
– Breast milk
In order for HIV to be transmitted
– HIV must be present.
– HIV must get inside the body.
– Vaginal sex (penis in the vagina)
– Anal sex (penis in the anus) involving either men or women
– Oral sex (mouth on the penis or vagina)
The risk of transmitting HIV is greatly reduced by using a condom.
Other ways that HIV can be transmitted
– Sharing needles when shooting drugs
– Home tattooing and body piercing
– Accidental needle sticks
– Blood transfusions
– Organ transplantation (if the donor organ is HIV infected)
– Most people with HIV infection do not look sick.
– Many people with HIV infection have not been tested and don’t know they are infected.
It is important to remember that HIV is NOT transmitted through
– Saliva, tears, sweat, feces, or urine
– Shaking hands
– Insect bites
– Living in the same house with someone who has HIV
– Sharing showers or toilets with someone with HIV
HIV is a virus that infects people by getting inside their blood cells. To avoid getting HIV, you must prevent the blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk of someone who is infected from entering your body through your mouth, vagina, anus, tip of your penis, or breaks in your skin.
Can I Get HIV from Casual Contact, Using a Public Space, or from a Mosquito Bite? No. HIV is NOT transmitted:
By hugging, shaking hands, sharing toilets, sharing dishes, or closed-mouth or “social” kissing with someone who is HIV-positive.
Through saliva, tears, or sweat that is not mixed with the blood of an HIV-positive person.
By mosquitoes, ticks or other blood-sucking insects.
Through the air.
As noted above, only certain body fluids—blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk—from an HIV-infected person can transmit HIV. Most commonly, people get or transmit HIV through sexual behaviors and needle or syringe use. Babies can also get HIV from an HIV-positive mother during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding.
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